Codes, Ciphers, Steganography & Sec...



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Discover the science of cryptology! This book is a complete introduction to codes, ciphers and secret messages. You will discover:

– How codes and ciphers work

– How secret messages can be concealed in apparently innocuous messages (steganography)

– How codebreakers and cryptanalysts break codes and ciphers

– Many examples of how codes and ciphers have changed history and continue to shape the world to this day

Table of Contents

Introduction: What are Codes, Ciphers and Steganography?

Chapter 1: Codes used for Communication

Flag Code

Semaphore Code

Polybius Square

Optical Telegraph Codes

Electrical Telegraph Codes

– International Morse Code

– Baudot Code

– Murray Code and ITA 2


Computer Codes

Chapter 2: Caesar Ciphers

Using a Caesar Cipher

Variations of the Caesar Cipher

– ROT13

– ROT5

– ROT18

– ROT47

– Avgad and Albam

Breaking Caesar Ciphers

Chapter 3: Simple Substitution Ciphers

Atbash Cipher

Simple Alphabet Substitution Ciphers

Simple Symbolic Substitution Ciphers

– Pigpen Cipher

Breaking Simple Substitution Ciphers

– Frequency Analysis

– Cribs

Defeating Frequency Analysis

– Short Messages

– Homophony

– Null Characters

– Other Methods

Chapter 4: Transposition Ciphers


Rail Fence Ciphers

Route Ciphers

Columnar Transposition Ciphers

Double Columnar Transposition Ciphers

Myszkowski Transposition Ciphers

Disrupted Transposition Ciphers

Grille Ciphers

– Trellis Ciphers

– Fleissner Ciphers

– Crossword Ciphers

Chapter 5: Fractionation and Diffusion

Bifid Cipher

Trifid Cipher

Chapter 6: Polygraphic Substitution

Advantages and Disadvantages of Polygraphic Ciphers

Playfair Cipher

Two-Square Cipher

Four-Square Cipher

Chapter 7: Polyalphabetic Ciphers

Alberti Cipher

Trithemius Cipher

Vigenère Ciphers

Beaufort and Variant Beaufort Cipher

Autokey Ciphers

Chapter 8: Enigma

The Enigma Machine

How Enigma was Broken

– Early British Efforts

– Polish Cipher Bureau

– Polish Cooperation with the Western Allies

– PC Bruno

– Cadix

– British Efforts Against Italian Naval Enigma

– The British Focus on Cribs

– British and American Bombes

– German Suspicions

Chapter 9: Perfect Ciphers

Vernam Cipher

One-Time Pads

Difficulties of Implementing a Perfect Cipher

– Protecting the Key

– Not Reusing the Key

– Randomness in the Key

– The Equipment Used Must Be Secure

Lorenz Cipher

– Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz Cipher

Chapter 10: Codewords

One-time Code



Chapter 11: Book Ciphers

Book Word Substitution Ciphers

Book Letter Substitution Ciphers

Running Key Ciphers

Chapter 12: Computer Cryptography

Symmetric-Key Cryptography

Public-Key Cryptography

Cryptographic Hashes and Digital Signatures

Chapter 13: Steganography and Hidden Messages

Null Ciphers

Bacon’s Cipher


Digital Steganography

– Image Files

– Audio Files

– Text and Word Processor Files

– Network Communications

– Other Examples

Chapter 14: Famous Codes, Ciphers and Cryptograms – Solved and Unsolved

Voynich Manuscript

Babington Plot Ciphers

Olivier Levasseur

Shugborough Inscription

Copiale Cipher

The Gold Bug

Beale Ciphers

Rohonc Codex

D’Agapeyeff Cipher

Dorabella Cipher

Zimmerman Telegram

Zodiac Killer Ciphers


The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage

Ricky McCormick’s Encrypted Notes

Smithy Code


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